Consider a variety of boilers operating on solid fuel.
Conventional solid fuel boilers the most reliable and versatile representatives of some kind. They look like an oven with a window for the batch of fuel, firebox and the chimney itself. this type of boilers are made of steel and cast iron, cast iron overall and durable. The raw material for traditional boiler will serve timber and coal. This is perhaps the most reliable representative of its kind, since it is not equipped with automatic, which often breaks down first, so these heaters do not require special repair for a long time.
Boilers long burning combustion or upper, just require minimal maintenance as conventional solid. Enjoy the spacious combustion chamber, which can be downloaded an impressive amount of raw materials.
The principle of solid fuel boiler
The principle of operation is simple - combustion and fuel supply are limited to the upper part of the raw material layer.
Pyrolysis boilers or gas generators have a high efficiency reaching 85 - 90% higher than for maximum heat dissipation. The principle of operation is enclosed in a timber under pressure of combustion heat thus smoldering wood, and releasing combustible gases are converted to charcoal. When the furnace temperature reaches 1000 degrees Celsius and a carbon-filled gasses provide the desired temperature for the decomposition of coal.
Pellet boilers are the same traditional solid fuel boilers burn wood pellet only consume pellets made of various wood waste, such as sawdust, shavings, bark and other wood residues. The main advantage over other pellet boilers is automated feed. Raw materials boilers.
Almost all devices work on several varieties of fuel - wood briquettes, pellets, lignite, bituminous coal and anthracite, peat. The manufacturer specifies a basic raw material used and how as an accessory. Of course it is better to use the main raw material for continuous and high-quality work. Power depends from him, on different raw materials boiler operates with different power and different amounts of time.
Cast iron or steel?
The unequivocal answer to this question is no, it all depends on what qualities should have the perfect boiler, suitable for you. Manufacturer of good in the production of both steel and cast iron. Firstly, we must be guided by the paramount properties, which must have a unit - the volume of the furnace, power, raw material, economy, the maximum burning time, safety and price.
Steel boiler is less prone to failure due to sudden temperature change. Steel boilers easily survive the temperature change that allows greater use of automation. But we should not forget that the systematic differences of steel can make a break and probably the boiler will not be repaired. Provide good quality welding as in the factory, the house did not succeed, whereas in a cast iron pot, you can simply replace the damaged part. Steel boilers sensitive than their cast iron cousins, they cool rapidly as heat.
The cast iron consists of several sections which can be separated from each other for convenience in transportation or for repair if leaks or breakage. Lack of iron boiler: he is afraid of the big difference in temperature. it is covered with rust as she opened not progress during the boiler functioning. Steel boiler is more susceptible to corrosion unlike iron, cast iron can be cleaned less often, and efficiency significantly reduced, as the appearance of a deposit.
Nonvolatile boilers operate completely without consuming energy at the expense of uselessness and lack of circulation pump. This is a traditional solid fuel boilers are made of steel and cast iron, and some long burning. The advantage of these boilers is a significant savings due to the constantly rising prices of electricity, such as boilers, well help out in areas where there are constant power outages.
Pyrolysis, pellet and some of the representatives of the long-burning boilers with a fan that pumps air flow into the furnace, as well as the control electric panel. Such boilers are volatile.
Calculation of power.
On average, for the power calculation can start from 1 kW to 10 m2 of floor space with a rather thick walls and ceilings of 3 m. Thus, for heating an area the size of 100 m2 suitable boiler capacity of 100/10 = 10 kW. If the insulation of the building is good - use factor 40 on a bad - coefficient of 60. Here is an example - a room of 100 m2 and well insulated ceiling height of 2.5 m - 100 x 2.5 x 40 = 10000 W = 10 kW. This calculation boiler power used for heating, it is necessary to take into account the capacity of the heat exchanger of the heater if you plan to use the boiler for hot water.
Power and useful volume of the furnace.
This volume for loading raw material into the furnace. For the representative of downloading through the furnace door, ie the front, the distribution of fuel will take a long time and is more difficult to pass, while the top-loading all happens quickly and evenly, thanks to the fact that it is easier distributed materials.
burning time a download of the furnace for the pyrolysis boilers - 8 hours before the floor of the day. It all depends on the raw materials used. For such units best suited wood than in hardwood. Such heaters have a large chamber for loading raw material, unlike conventional boilers. Pyrolysis boiler efficiency reaches 90%.
Single pellet boiler operation time depends directly on the size of the firebox. Through automation, the boiler itself throws into the furnace raw materials that are imported only once per season, without taking up much space in the room due to the small size of the granules. Working time on one tab furnaces long burning boiler from 15 hours to more than two or three days. Due to the fact that the combustion takes place downwards feedstock is not lit and smoldering, which leaves a significant amount of raw materials in the boiler and provides a longer burn.
For normal boilers is a characteristic showing the ratio of the volume of the furnace with a load capacity. This characteristic defines the laying of raw speed. For cast iron 1.1 - 1.4 l / kW for steel 1.6 - 2.6 l / kW.
Boilers for solid fuels often have a cooling coil, it is used to avoid overheating of the heating system, it is located between the system and any output, or integrated into the boiler. The representatives of the iron impossible to establish an independent cooling circuit, so installation is possible only on the output. With steel situation is simpler in the production of the cooling circuit is installed inside and boiler never boils.
The boiler heating system for solid fuels apply forced circulation of coolant, thus saving costs. The disadvantage of this system only in the fact that the circulation may be disturbed, which will lead to overheating of the boiler.
The boiler is applied in a large water tank, connected between the system and the heating boiler. Such insulated water tank called a heat accumulator or buffer capacity. This recycles the heat capacity of the boiler and translates it into the heating system. Increases efficiency and reduces the consumption of raw materials, due to improvement of temperature.
Absorbing coolant and mixing it with water, it protects the heating system against overheating.
It reduces fuel bookmark frequency gives a stable temperature.
Coordinates with various heating system boilers - for solid fuels, electricity and gas.
The volume of the water tank must be not less than 25 liters per 1 kW. That is, the more powerful, the more volume.
It is possible the conversion of conventional solid fuel boiler to run on gas. This will require the installation of special inflatable burner. But we must remember that the efficiency of the boiler is less than that of a special gas boiler.